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Analyse chimique du bois, des pâtes, des papiers et des matériaux connexes.

The Analytical Department is accredited with the Canadian Association for Laboratory Accreditation, Inc. (CALA) for specific tests.

Acetone extractives
Acid insolubles
Acid insoluble ash (free carbon)
Acidity or alkalinity, pulp
Alkali resistant cellulose (by calculation)
Alpha, Beta, Gamma cellulose
Ash @ 525°C, @ 725°C, @ 1000°C
Ash fusion temperature
oxidation or reducing atmosphere

Biochemical Oxygen Demand, BOD, pulp and liquor

Carbon, fixed
Carboxyl functional group content
Carboxyl and aldehyde functional group content
Carbohydrates (wood sugars: (arabinan, xylan, mannan, galactan, glucan)
Caustic solubility, 1% 100°C
Caustic solubility, 10% 25°C
Caustic solubility, 18% 25°C (hemicellulose)
Caustic solubility, 21.5%, 25°C
Caustic solubility, 20°C
Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD, pulp and liquor
Chloride, water soluble
Chloriting (delignification)
Chromium, hexavalent
Consistency, pulp suspensions
Copper number

Dichloromethane extractables (DCM)

Ether extractables

Formaldehyde, (7 standard, specific and international methods)
Formaldehyde, free emulsion polymers

Hemicellulose (see Caustic Solubility)

Kappa number
Klason lignin
Karl Fischer moisture

Klason in wood, bleached and unbleached pulps
Soluble lignin
Residual in bleached, dissolving grade pulps

Routine metals in wood, pulp and lime (23 elements):
Al, As, Ba, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni,
P, K, Si, Na, Sr, Ti, V, Zn
Optional metals: B, Hg, Se, Th
By element: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb
Organo silicone
Moisture (oven dry method)
Moisture, by Karl Fisher, oils, tall oil soap, etc.

Permanganate number (K number)
pH (cold)
pH (hot)
Pitch, detrimental in pulp
Potential tall oil in wood (includes grinding)
Potential turpentine in wood

Residual lignin, bleached dissolving grade pulps

Slime test (presence/absence)
Sodium (total, washable and bound sodium)
Solubility, 10% KOH
Surface pH
Sulfate, water soluble
Sulfur, Parr oxygen bomb
Sulfur, reducible (TRS)
Sulfur, total and bound
Surfactant, extractable non-ionic

Viscosity, 0.5% CED
Viscosity, 0.5% CED moisture teller method
Viscosity, 1% ball fall
Viscosity, level off intrinsic (LOIV)
Viscosity, instrinsic

Water solubility
Water soluble chloride
Water soluble sulfate

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Analyses physiques et optiques des pâtes, des papiers et des cartons et services connexes.

Pulp Strength Evaluations
PFI mill
Valley Beater
Canadian Standard Freeness
*above evaluations will include CSF, burst, tear, tensile, bulk, tensile energy absorption and stretch

Mechanical Pulp Evaluations
Mechanical Pulp Handsheets including latency removal (Domtar mixer)
Mechanical Pulp Evaluations using Whitewater Recirculation including latency removal (Domtar mixer)
Post latency freeness (Domtar mixer)
*above evaluations will include CSF, burst, tear, tensile, bulk, tensile energy absorption and stretch

Bauer McNett Fiber Classification
4 fractions, +14, +28, +48, +100 mesh
5 fractions, +14, +28, +48, +100, +200 mesh
(other mesh screens also available)

Pulmac Shive Analyzer
As received With latency removal With display sheets Duplicate runs (0.004", 0.006" and 0.010" screens available)

Handsheet Preparation
British Standard Sheet Machine

Additional Physical Strength Tests
Basis weight
Britt jar fines
Castor oil absorption
Dennison wax pick
Drainage time
Fold, MIT
Grease resistance
Internal bond
Kit level, oil absorption
Klemm absorption
K and N ink absorbency
Modulus of Elasticity
Porosity, Gurley
Porosity, Sheffield
Porosity, Parker Print Surf
Ring crush
Roughness, Parker Print Surf
Short span, dry or wet, Pulmac
Shrinkage, handsheets
Silver tarnishing
Sizing, Hercules Size Test
Smoothness, Sheffield
Smoothness, Gurley
Softness, Gurley
STFI, Short Span Compression
Stiffness, Gurley
Stiffness, Taber
Tensile, rewetted
Water absorption, water drop method
Water Absorption, Cobb
Water resistance, paper
Water retention value
Water vapor transmission rate
Wet web tensile @ 30% solids
Zero span tensile, dry or wet, Pulmac

Fracture Toughness (In-Plane Tear)
Optical Properties
Brightness, ISO, Technibrite TB-1C
Brightness, reversion @ 105 C
Color, CIE, Hunter
Gloss 75°, 20°
Light scattering coefficient
Light absorption coefficient
Tristimulus, x,y,z
Whiteness, ASTM, CIE
Dominant wavelength, Purity, Luminosity

MBR print indicator

Dirt and Shive Evaluation
Reflected light, Transmitted light

Fiber Characteristics
Fiber Quality Analyzer including fiber length, coarseness, kink index, curl, percent fines and population

Fluff Pulp Properties
Conditioned basis weight
Fluffing, Weber hammermill
Fiber damage ratio
Hardness index
Neps or nodules
Specific volume, resiliency, absorption capacity and time

Talc, Clay and Lime Analyses

Bulk density, loose and compacted
Oil absorption
Water absorption
Brightness, ISO
Filler and additive evaluations

Specialty Tests and Services
Absorbency and capacity, fabric
Face wire replacement (British Standard Sheet Machine grid plates)

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Identification des différentes essences d'arbre par analyse microscopique des fibres

Species Analysis: (pulp, paper and chip samples)
Includes percentage breakdown of species and pulp type. We can identify all common North American pulpwoods − hardwoods and softwoods. Also experienced with samples from Europe, South America and Asia. Identification of sawdusts, wood chip and powdered products is also available.

Chemical/Mechanical Pulp Content

Non-Wood and/or Synthetic Fiber Determinations

General Species Characterization

Individual wood species, non-wood fibers (grasses, straws, cereals, synthetic, etc.)

Specific types of synthetic can be identified by FTIR technique.

Comparative Vessel Counts
Determines the relative amounts of hardwood vessel elements between pulps in a batch of samples. Vessels can also be categorized by size or observable damage (fibrillation, fragmentation). Photomicrographs are also an available service.

Fiber and Pulp Characteristics by Microscopy Methodology:

Cell Wall Thickness and Fiber Diameter

Sclereid Identification and Count

Total Sticky Area and Count
Determines the amount of stickies contamination in recycled pulps and papers. Reported as total count of stickies and as total surface area of stickies per 100 o.d. grams of sample.

Total Ink Count and Total Ink Area
Count and measure ink particles in recycled pulps and papers. Largest, smallest and average ink particle size, as well particle color can be noted.


Contaminant Identification
General microscopic examinations identify common pulp and paper contaminants like shives, bark, sclereids and foreign material like plastic or synthetic fibers. Chemical identification is further available by FTIR techniques. Photomicrographs are often a useful addition.

A digital camera specially mounted onto microscopes with 10X through 400X magnification allows for detailed photographs of your sample. Very helpful in demonstrating what has been observed at the microscopic level. Many applications including general pulp or fiber qualities, embedded contaminants, physical materials or debris, general print quality, etc.

Particle Size by Microscopic Methodology
Projecting a high-magnification microscopic image of your solid or liquid sample onto a video monitor allows for the measurement of particle diameters into any size categories you choose. Detection limit is 1µm.

Asbestos Analysis
Asbestos Bulk Samples − identifying asbestos in various materials like insulation, floor tiles, etc. (NIOSH 9002)
Asbestos Fiber Counts − fiber counts on air samples (NIOSH 7400)

Analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) or Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is arranged through subcontract.

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Identification des contaminants

Most contaminant identification projects require some of the following support services:
Sample preliminary evaluation Analytical preliminary evaluation Analytical scheme design Data evaluation, interpretation Consultation

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Includes the following techniques:
KBr disc
NaCl salt plate
Solids, powder, liquid, plastic, rubber, extractives all can be identified using one or more of the above FTIR techniques.
Samples such as pulp & paper process deposits, contaminants, plastics, unknown materials, coating material are analyzed frequently.

FTIR − Microscope
Micro amounts of unknown pulp & paper contaminants, process deposits, coatings, tape pull, fly ash, etc. can be identified using these techniques.

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Essais de réduction en pâte et de blanchiment.

Sample Preparation
Whole logs, woodchips and non-wood samples can be processed. Whole logs are used in specific species studies. Logs are manually debarked and chipped in our disk chipper. Pure species chips can be evaluated or mixed in specified proportions to produce a new mill chip blend for evaluation. Mill chip samples or lab produced chips can be further modified using thickness or roundhole chip screening to determine the impact of chip screening improvements on pulping operations.

Wood and Chip Testing
Chip samples can be classified using thickness or roundhole screens. Tyler sieve classifiers are available for sawdust samples. Chip or sawdust samples can also be analyzed for bark or rot content. The basic wood density of the samples can be determined or the bulk chip packing density can also be measured.

Lab Pulping
Kraft cooks can be performed in 6-L bomb digesters or in a 20-L circulating liquor digester. Bomb cooks are used to evaluate benefits of anthraquinone, surfactants and deresinating agents. Because of the small volume (6-L) in our bomb digesters, overthick chips and chip fines are removed from the chips to reduce variability in pulping results. One bomb digester cook produces sufficient pulp for an unbleached strength evaluation. Bomb cooks are also used to evaluate sawdust samples.

The 20-L circulating liquor digester can cook up to 3000 grams O.D. for accurate yield determinations. Multiple furnishes can be evaluated in using the same pulping conditions for layered cooks. The 20-L digester produces enough pulp for unbleached and bleached pulp evaluations. We report total yield, screened yield, rejects, knots and residual EA for all cooks.

Many pulping processes are simulated in our 20-L digester including kraft, kraft/AQ, sulfite (acid and alkaline), NSSC medium, kraft liner and chemical pulping. A laboratory refiner is used in the linerboard and medium studies. Low energy batch simulations, (i.e. RDH®, SuperBatch®) can be run. Alkali profiling cooks can also be run (i.e. MCC, EMCC, LoSolids cooks).

Two atmospheric refiners are available for running mechanical pulping studies or determining chip brightness after refining.

Bleaching is performed in polyethylene bags or in pressurized reactors. We can simulate any bleaching process using chlorine dioxide, oxygen, ozone, hydrosulfite, peroxide, hypochlorite or chlorine. Most of our studies involve the ODEopDED or DEopDED sequences. Enzyme or xylanase pretreatment can be studied in our laboratory to determine chlorine dioxide savings. Our equipment is scaled to use 300 g of brown stock, which provides sufficient fully bleached pulp for pulp strength testing. We can generate 5 to 10 kg of fully bleached pulp for our customer evaluations.

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Analyse chimique des liqueurs de mise en pâte et d'autres matériaux et liquides connexes.

All Liquors
Biochemical Oxygen Demand, BOD
Boiling Point
Carbohydrates (wood sugars: arabinan, xylan, mannan, galactan, glucan)
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Routine metals for liquors (24 elements)
Optional metals (Hg, Se, Th)
By element (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb)
Soluble (dissolved) metals
Sulfur, Total

White, Green Liquor and Smelt
ABC titration
Active alkali
Effective alkali
Total titratable alkali
Sulfidity, ABC Titration
Causticity, ABC Titration
Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfite and sodium thiosulfate
Polysulfide sulfur

Black Liquor
Active alkali/effective alkali
Total alkali, conductometric
Total titratable alkali
Ash @ 600°C
Ash, sulfated, organic/inorganic ratio
Boiling point rise
Calorific Value, Parr Calorimeter
Higher Heating Value (HHV)
Density (weak and strong black liquor)
Fiber content
Lignin, UV
Oxalate or sodium oxalate
Tall oil content
Thermal value, black liquor solids
Solids, total, oven drying, weak and strong black liquor
Swelling characteristics, dry liquor solids
Viscosity @ various temperature levels Viscosity curve @ 90°C, 100°C, 110°C
Viscosity, sample preparation to various solids levels

Microanalysis, elemental analysis:
Sulfur, S
Chloride, Cl
Sodium, Na
Potassium, K
Inerts (Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Si)

Sulfite and sodium thiosulfate

Chlorine Compounds
Cl-, ClO2-, ClO3- in bleach solutions

Flash point, tag closed cup
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH)
Methyl disulfide (CH3)2S and dimethyl disulfide (CH3)2S2
Resin and fatty acids
Total reducible sulfur
a-pinene, Camphene, ß-pinene, Myrcene, .3-carene,
a-phellandrene, a-terpinene, .-menthene, .-cymene,
a-limonene, ß-ocimene, .-terpinene, a-terpineol

Lime Mud
Free carbon (ash and lime)
Available (free) lime, CaO
CaCO3, loss on ignition @ 1000°C
CaCO3, by gas chromatography
Hydrated lime Ca(OH)2

Limestone or Reburned Lime
Available lime, (CaO), sugar test
Available (free) lime (CaO), calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
Preparation, if required (crushing, grinding, etc.)
(preparation by ashing and acid digestion or by ashing and alkali fusion of acid solubles)
Routine metals in lime (24 elements):
Al, As, Ba, B, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo,
Ni, P, K , Si, Na, Sr, Ti, V, Zn

Free Cabon
Insoluble matter
Sodium thiosulfate
Sodium sulfite

Spent Sulfite Liquour
Sulfate as SO3
Total sulfur

Tall Oil
Acid number
Bottom solids and water (BSW)
Rosin acids, fatty acids and unsaponifiables
Water, Karl Fischer titration

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Analyses des liqueurs noires.

Thermal Data Special
Calorific value (BTU/lb)
Percent solids
Organic/inorganic ratio (sulfated ash)

Routine Black Liquor Monitoring
Calorific value (BTU/lb)
Percent solids
Total sulfur (S)
Total chloride (Cl)
Total sodium, potassium (Na, K)
Micro elemental analysis (CHNO)

Extended Black Liquor Evaluation
All of the Routine Black Liquor Monitoring package plus:
Carbonate (Na2CO3)
Sulfate (Na2SO4)
Sulfite and thiosulfate (Na2SO3, Na2S2O3)
Active (and estimated effective) alkali
Total alkali
Organic/inorganic ratio (sulfated ash)
Viscosity of as received liquor measured at three
temperatures in the range of 90°C to 115°C
Inerts (Ca, Mg, Fe, Si, Al)
Tall oil content

Viscosity and Swelling Properties
Reduced pressure evaporation of black liquor to three
solids levels followed by measurement of viscosity at
three temperatures.
Calorific value (BTU/lb)
Organic/inorganic ratio (sulfated ash)
Swelling characteristics of dry liquor solids (duplicate)
Micro elemental analysis (CHNO)

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Analyse chimique des déchets ligneux, des boues, des combustibles ligneux et d'autres biocombustibles.


Fuel Ultimate Analysis:
Ash @ 750°C
Carbon, C
Hydrogen, H
Nitrogen, N
Oxygen, O
Total sulfur, S
Chloride content, Cl

Fuel Proximate Analysis:
Volatile matter
Fixed carbon
Ash @ 750°C

Higher heating value (Calorific value)

Size classifications (Williams or Tyler sieve)

Wood density

Ash Analysis:
Routine scan (23 elements):
Al, As, Ba, B, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, K, Si, Sr, Ti, V, Zn
By element: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb
Optional metals: Hg, Se, Th

Ash fusion temperature: oxidation or reducing atmosphere

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Essais des pâtes à dissoudre de type viscose et acétate.

Viscose Pulp Evaluation
Routine small scale viscose (slurry steep or sheet steep), including:
Aging time
Ball fall

Sheet properties, including:
Capillary rise
Sheet flotation
Caustic absorption
Swelling volume

Acetate Pulp Evaluation
45 gram acetylation
Acetate flake
Also available:
Clogging constant
Plugging value
Phase contrast photomicrographs and counts
Acetate flake viscosity
Acetyl value

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Analyses environnementales.

The Environmental Department is accredited with the Canadian Association for Laboratory Accreditation Inc. (CALA) for specific tests.

fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodine, nitrite, nitrate,
sulfate, sulfide, sulfite, thiosulfate, chloride, chlorite,

Biochemical Oxygen Demand, BOD5, liquor or pulp

Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD, from pulp
Chlorine, residual or total

Dioxin and Furan, aqueous or pulp

Formaldehyde, colorimetrically, water/aqueous extracts
Formaldehyde, in pulp/paper products
(7 standard, specific and international methods)

Preparation by:
ashing and acid digestion
ashing and alkali fusion of acid insolubles

Routine metals in effluents (24 elements):
Al, As, Ba, B, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo,
Ni, P,K, Si, Na, Sr, Ti, V, Zn

Optional metals: Hg
Soluble (dissolved) metals

Methanol, ethanol, effluents, condensates
Methylene blue active substances, MBAS, effluents

Nitrogen, Kjeldahl, effluents, solids

Phenols (colorimetric)
Phosphate, total (HClO4 digestion), effluents, solids and
Phosphate, total dissolved (ortho), (PO4)

Resin and fatty acids:
aqueous, soil, (free and total)
Resin acids:
pimaric acid, sandaracopimaric acid, isopimaric acid,
levopimaric acid, dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid,
neoabietic acid, chlorodehydroabietic acid,
dicholordehydroabietic acid
Fatty acids:
C12 lauric acid, C14 myristic acid, C16 palmitic acid,
C18:0 stearic acid, C18:1/C18:3 oleic/linolenic acid, C18:2
linoleic acid, C20 arachidic acid, C22 behenic acid, C24
lignoceric acid

Starch, soluble, effluents
Sulfide, sulfite, thiosulfate (see anions)
Surfactant, anionic (MBAs)

Tannin and lignin-like compounds, TLLC
Total organic carbon, TOC
Terpenes, aqueous or solids:
a-pinene, Camphene, ß-pinene, Myrcene, .3-carene,
a-phellandrene, a-terpinene, .-menthene, .-cymene,
a-limonene, ß-ocimene, .-terpinene, a-terpineol

Analyse des composés organiques halogénés adsorbables (COHA), totaux (TOX) et extractibles (EOX).

Effluent Water
AOX (total, dissolved or suspended)

Pulp or Paper
AOX (water leachable, adsorbable organic halogen)
OX/TOX (total organic halogen)
TX (total halogen)
EOX (extractable organic halogen)

Various pulp specific methods available including

Solvent, Oil, Grease, Sludge, Pulp
Extractable Organic Halogen (EOX)
Total halogen (TX)

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